A strong


Success of approach validated in more than 250 patients administered under compassionate use in Japan and Germany.

Scientific Literature

Bayerl, SH, Ghori, A, Nieminen-Kelhä, M, Adage, T, Breitenbach, J, Vajkoczy, P, Prinz, V. 2019. In vitro and in vivo testing of a novel local nicardipine delivery system to the brain: a preclinical study. J Neurosurg. 25:1-8.  NEW

Barth, M, Capelle HH, Weidauer S, Weiss C, Münch E, Thomé C, Luecke T, Schmiedek P, Kasuya H, Vajkoczy P. 2007. Effect of nicardipine prolonged-release implants on cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome after severe aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective, randomized, double-blind phase IIa study. Stroke 38 (2): 330-336.

Barth, M, Thomé C, Schmiedek P, Weiss C, Kasuya H, Vajkoczy P. 2009. Characterization of functional outcome and quality of life following subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients treated with and without nicardipine prolonged-release implants. J Neurosurgery 110 (5): 955-960.

Barth, MM, Pena P, Seiz M, Thomé C, Muench E, Weidauer S, Hattingen E, Kasuya H, Schmiedek P. 2011. Feasibility of intraventricular nicardipine prolonged release implants in patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Br J Neurosurgery 25(6): 677-683.

Kasuya, H., Onda H, Takeshita M, Okada Y, Hori T. 2002. Efficacy and safety of nicardipine prolonged-release implants for preventing vasospasm in humans. Stroke 33 (4): 1011-1015.

Kasuya, H., Onda H, Sasahara A, Takeshita M, Hori T. 2005. Application of nicardipine prolonged-release implants: analysis of 97 consecutive patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 56 (5): 895-902.  

Kasuya, H. 2010. Development of Nicardipine prolonged-release implants after clipping for preventing cerebral vasospasm: from laboratory to clinical trial. The Open Conference Proceedings Journal. 1: 178-182.

Kasuya, H. 2011. Clinical trial of nicardipine prolonged-release implants for preventing cerebral vasospasm: multicenter cooperative study in Tokyo. Acta Neurochir Suppl 110(Pt 2):165-167.

Krischek, B, Kasuya H, Onda H, Hori T. 2007. Nicardipine prolonged-release implants for preventing cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: effect and outcome in the first 100 patients. Neurol Med Chir 47 (9): 389-394.

Schneider UC, Dreher S, Hoffmann KT, Schmiedek P, Kasuya H, Vajkoczy P. 2011. The use of nicardipine prolonged release implants (NPRI) in microsurgical clipping after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: comparison with endovascular treatment. Acta Neurochir 153(11):2119-25.

Thomé C, Seiz M, Schubert GA, Barth M, Vajkoczy P, Kasuya H, Schmiedek P. 2011. Nicardipine pellets for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 110(2):209-11.

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